Tuesday, February 10, 2009

B5.1-R3 : Professional And Business Communication

B5.1-R3 : Professional And Business Communication

Chapters Jan-04 Jul-04 Jan-05 Jul-05 Jan-06 Jul-06 Jan-07 Jul-07 Total
01. Introduction 0 10 14 0 6 0 4 6 40
02. Forms of Technical Communication 22 14 26 52 32 33 16 32 227
03. Communication Processes 31 24 21 42 33 53 28 36 268
04. The Art of Listening 16 23 12 6 5 4 22 6 94
05. Interpersonal Network 18 6 10 18 12 14 16 9 103
06. Communication in Groups and Teams 0 35 18 0 13 6 10 15 97
07. Resumes and Interviews 40 10 12 18 16 10 18 14 138
08. Making Presentations I 5 10 9 0 10 12 10 9 65
09. Making Presentations II 0 1 0 0 0 2 6 4 13
10. Managing Techno-Life 4 12 14 12 13 12 6 13 86
Total 136 145 136 148 140 146 136 144 1131

1. Introduction
July-2004 [10]
1. Answer the following in brief:
a) iii) List down two important barriers to effective communication. [2]
. Language Barrier; - Different languages, vocabulary, accent, dialect represents a national/ regional barriers. Semantic gaps are words having similar pronunciation but multiple meanings like- round; badly expressed message, wrong interpretation and unqualified assumptions. The use of difficult or inappropriate words/ poorly explained or misunderstood messages can result in confusion.
2. Cultural Barriers: - Age, education, gender, social status, economic position, cultural background, temperament, health, beauty, popularity, religion, political belief, ethics, values, motives, assumptions, aspirations, rules/regulations, standards, priorities can separate one person from another and create a barrier.
3. Individual Barrier: - It may be a result of an individual's perceptual and personal discomfort. Even when two persons have experienced the same event their mental perception may/may not be identical which acts as a barrier. Style, selective perception, halo effect, poor attention and retention, defensiveness, close mindedness, insufficient filtration are the Individual or Psychological barrier.
4. Organizational Barrier: - It includes Poor Organization's culture, climate, stringent rules, regulations, status, relationship, complexity, inadequate facilities/ opportunities of growth and improvement; whereas; the nature of the internal and external environment like large working areas physically separated from others, poor lightening, staff shortage, outdated equipments and background noise are Physical Organizational Barrier.
5. Interpersonal Barrier: - Barriers from Employers are :- Lack of Trust in employees; Lack of Knowledge of non-verbal clues like facial expression, body language, gestures, postures, eye contact; different experiences; shortage of time for employees; no consideration for employee needs; wish to capture authority; fear of losing power of control; bypassing and informational overloading, while Barriers from Employees includes Lack of Motivation, lack of co-operation, trust, fear of penalty and poor relationship with the employer.
6. Attitudinal Barrier: - It comes about as a result of problems with staff in the organisation. Limitation in physical and mental ability, intelligence, understanding, pre-conceived notions, and distrusted source divides the attention and create a mechanical barrier which affects the attitude and opinion.
7. Channel Barrier: - If the length of the communication is long, or the medium selected is inappropriate, the communication might break up; it can also be a result of the inter-personal conflicts between the sender and receiver; lack of interest to communicate; information sharing or access problems which can hamper the channel and affect the clarity, accuracy and effectiveness.
To communicate effectively one need to overcome these barriers. Working on breaking the barrier is a broad-brush activity and here are certain measures.
- Allow employees access to resources, self expression and idea generation.
- Express your expectations to others.
- Use less of absolute words such as "never", "always", "forever", etc.
- Be a good, attentive and active listener.
- Filter the information correctly before passing on to someone else.
- Try to establish one communication channel and eliminate the intermediaries.
- Use specific and accurate words which audiences can easily understand.
- Try and view the situations through the eyes of the speaker.
- The "you" attitude must be used on all occasions.
- Maintain eye contact with the speaker and make him comfortable.
- Write the instructions if the information is very detailed or complicated.
- Oral communication must be clear and not heavily accented.
- Avoid miscommunication of words and semantic noise.
- Ask for clarifications, repetition where necessary.
- Make the organisational structure more flexible, dynamic and transparent.
- Foster congenial relationship which strengths coordination between superior and subordinate.
- Focus on purposeful and well focused communication.
- The message of communication should be clear and practical.
- Get Proper Feedback.
- Be a Selective Listener, this is when a person hears another but selects not to hear what is being said by choice or desire to hear some other message.
- Be a "Fixer", a fixer is a person that tries to find other person's fault.
- Be a daydreamer.
- Use long chain of command for communication.
- Use too many technical jargons.
- Jump to conclusions immediately.
- Interrupt the speakers and distract him by asking too many irrelevant questions

2. a) Why is effective communication necessary for efficient management? State “do’s” and don’t’s” for good communication. [8]

DO: Treat the person with dignity
Discuss in private
Use “I” statements (i.e. - “I’m concerned...”, “I need you to...”)
Seek clarification (i.e. - “Help me understand your concerns regarding this project”)
Confirm understanding (i.e. - “So what you’re saying is...”)
Explain the effect of the behavior on others (i.e. “When you come late, others have to wait”)
Seek solutions/action (i.e. - “How can we resolve this...”, “Would you be willing to...”)
Maintain perspective/sense of humor
Don’t point finger or blame
Don’t make it personal
If possible, don’t confront in front of others
Don’t dictate or use “you” statements (i.e.- avoid “you should”, “you better”, “you need to”)
Don’t drop hints or use sarcasm. Don’t argue.
Don’t name names (i.e.- if they say “who told you that”, say “that’s not important” and re-focus)
Don’t expect immediate change
Finally, it is important for us to ask ourselves why we are giving the feedback in the first place. Is it to make ourselves feel better? Are we doing it out of anger? Are we bothered because their way is not our way? We may want to think twice before confronting if these are our motives. However, if we have legitimate concerns-- their behavior is negatively affecting us or those around us or their behavior violates an agreement that we have made -- then we may want to confront the situation.
January-2005 [14]
a) What are the basic requirements of effective communication?

1) At least two people must be involved;
2) There must be information to communicate;
3) Some attempt must be made to transmit the information. [4]

2. b) What steps would you follow to attain the goal of communication?

Step 1: Strategic Planning
Think of your safety program as a form of target marketing, addressing specific objectives with a specific strategy and set of tactics that will provide you with measurable results.
Step 2: Alignment
Draw a direct link between what each individual can do differently in his/her job in order to contribute to the program's strategic goals.
Step 3: Program Structure & Budget
How much will you spend on the program, and for what? How will expenses change based on various outcomes--positive or negative? It's always beneficial to include both long-term and short-term goals in your program to maintain a sense of urgency and to keep employees engaged who may feel the ultimate goal may be challenging to reach.
Step 4: Communicate & Train
communication includes training when it's required to help participants perform at the desired level Most has to be done face to face, in regular meetings, so that people can ask questions. Good communication helps people to understand what management wants, but also how the program is progressing--the challenges as well as the successes
Step 5: Measure
your task is to determine how you will measure the payout in terms of financial and non-financial value to the organization
Step 6: Reward
To be effective, reward systems require measurement and a clear definition of what's important for the company's success.
Step 7: Evolve
Analysis and feedback are essential--programs often have quantitative and qualitative measures of success. Frequently compare your actual results with your plan and isolate any factor that could have affected performance in order to prepare a recommendations report for future programs and to continue to improve your program while it's running. [5]
c) What are the basic features of communication competence? [5]
Communication competence is the ability to choose a communication behavior that is both appropriate and effective for a given situation. Interpersonal competency allows one to achieve their communication goals without causing the other party to lose face. The model most often used to describe competence is the component model (Spitzberg & Cupach, 1984) which includes three components: 1) knowledge, 2) skill, and 3) motivation. Knowledge simply means knowing what behavior is best suited for a given situation. Skill is having the ability to apply that behavior in the given context. Motivation is having the desire to communicate in a competent manner.
Individual Interpretations:
The component model's three parts requires that a communicator be able to 1) recognize what communication practice is appropriate (knowledge), 2) have the ability to perform that practice (skill), and 3) want to communicate in an effective and appropriate manner (motivation).
The component model of competence is not a theory about communication, but rather a model that sets the framework for what makes someone a competent communicator. The component model has been used as the basis for many other models of competence because of its breadth. The model can be easily applied to the criteria of effectiveness and appropriateness that make up a competent communicator.
Ideas and Implications:
Specifically there is a new focus on this idea of competence that is concerned with how the dyad creates competency rather than the focus on the individual competency. In this model a dyad's communication can be competent in that within the relationship it is both effective and appropriate, but to those outside of the group, it might seem incompetent.
In order to be a competent communicator, one must be able to recognize which skills are necessary in a particular situation, have those skills, and be properly motivated to use those skills.

January-2006 [6]
c) Explain in most cases what make us a poor communicator. [6]
January-2007 [4]
a) Show how communication is central to business. [4]

July-2007 [6]
a) Write down what a communicator should avoid for not becoming a bad communicator. [6]

2. Forms of Technical Communication

January-2004 [22]
1. Explain the following:
b) Difference between Memo and Cover letter.

Memorandum (also more commonly memo) is a brief written record or communication, used in an office, whether business, government, education institution or legal office
A memorandum is written using a specific format, usually a format accepted by the office in which the memorandum is to be used. The usual structure for a memorandum includes some or all of the following:

TO: The person receiving the memorandum

FROM: The person writing the memorandum

DATE: Usually a formal manner of writing the date, for example March 22nd, 1995

SUBJECT: A short title descriptive of the topic in discussion in the memorandum

Introduction: explaining why the memorandum has been written and what topic the memorandum will discuss.

Body: discussing the topic in detail--explaining what exactly and itemizing when possible.

Conclusion: explaining what will or should happen next, when the follow-up will occur and why the date is important.
A cover letter or covering letter is a letter of introduction attached to, or accompanying another document such as a résumé or curriculum vitae.
Cover letters may also serve as marketing devices. Cover letters are used in connection with many business documents such as loan applications, contract drafts and proposals, and executed documents.
Cover letters are generally one page at most in length, divided into a header, introduction, body, and closing.
Header. Cover letters use standard business letter style, with the sender's address and other information, the recipient's contact information, and the date sent after either the sender's or the recipient's address. Following that is an optional reference section (e.g. "RE: Internship Opportunity at Global Corporation") and an optional transmission note (e.g. "Via Email to jobs@globalcorp.net"). The final part of the header is a salutation (e.g., "Dear Hiring Managers").
Introduction. The introduction briefly states the specific position desired, and is designed to catch the employer's immediate interest.
Body. The body highlights or amplifies on material in the resume or job application, and explains why the job seeker is interested in the job and would be of value to the employer. Matters discussed typically include skills, qualifications, and past experience. If there are any special things to note such as availability date, they may be included as well.
Closing. A closing sums up the letter, and indicates the next step the applicant expects to take. It may indicate that the applicant intends to contact the employer, [1], although some favor the more indirect approach of simply saying that the applicant will look forward to hearing from or speaking with the employer. After the closing is a salutation ("Sincerely"), and then a signature line. Optionally, the abbreviation "ENCL" may be used to indicate that there are enclosures. [4]
a) What is a report? What is its purpose? Differentiate between formal and informal reports
Writing informal reports


Memo header

To: (name and title of target audience)
From: (name and title of writer: remember to sign or initial)
CC: (distribution list when necessary)
Introduction [no heading necessary]
Discussion sections [varies with purpose of report]

Parts of an informal report

Reports are written for many different reasons and use two basic formats. One is the long or formal report and the short or informal report. But EVERY report, like every letter, essay, or article has 3 main parts: Introduction, Discussion sections, Conclusion. These reports follow the same format as the memo but are longer and more comprehensive. Because they are longer than one or two pages, reports also include such formatting elements as headings, bulleted or numbered lists, and graphs and charts or tables.

The introductory section includes 3 parts:

1. a statement of the problem or situation,
2. the task assigned to the writer and the scope of the project.
3. purpose of the report and forecasts for the reader the topics of the report.
Finally, when appropriate, the introduction ends with the conclusion or recommendation reached by the writer.
An introduction for a proposal might read:

XYZ Company has been troubled recently by an ineffective inventory control system. I propose to investigate this system at the South Side Branch. This report discusses the problem, research methods, possible solutions, and a budget and schedule for the research.
[Notice that the introduction has no heading. Headings for introductory sections are optional.]
An introduction for a final report that includes a recommendation might read:

XYZ Company has been troubled recently by an ineffective inventory control system. Task Force A has researched the problem to identify possible causes and solutions. We have limited our investigation to the South Side Branch. This report discusses the problem, research methods, alternative solutions, and presents our recommendation and details of implementation.
Task Force A recommends the reorganization of Warehouse management to include inventory supervisor whose staff will be responsible for all inventory records.

Another aspect of report writing that is somewhat different from other business communications is the reading patterns of various audiences. Remember that most memos and reports have a target audience, but a number of secondary audiences who must be accommodated. Some of the readers will skim the report. If I am the finance officer, for example, I will be more interested in the cost of the change and the return in the investment than the research methods or the details of the problem. I might read the budget section very thoroughly, yet only skim the other sections. If I am skeptical of the cost effectiveness of a recommended solution, I will go back and read what other solutions were considered.
In other words, the report, particularly the discussion sections, may not be read in a linear way—from the first word progressing to the last. Therefore, the writer must be certain the report is comprehensible when read in that manner. Each section must work together as part of the whole report, but a reader should be able to read one section and understand the context. An example of the first section of a discussion follows.

Description of the Problem
For the past two years, South Side Branch has recorded higher than normal inventory losses. Employees reported that many items shown to be in stock are not and other items were reordered when there was no need. The costs of these inventory mistakes have increased steadily for the past eight quarter (see Figure 1) and--------
Notice how the first sentence of the section "Description of the Problem" provides the context of the report (inventory loss, South Side Branch). If each section of a long or short report contains a contextual reference, a reader will be able to skim a report and read pertinent sections without having to refer back to the introduction for its context.
Anytime you use a list, or graphic or visual representation, you should introduce that list or visual and explain its purpose to the audience.

Mission of Parks and Recreation Advisory Board
The mission and goals of the Parks and Recreation Advisory Board (PRAB) include

provide and maintain playgrounds and other outdoor facilities for city residents
sponsor recreational programs for both children and adults
maintain centers for indoor activities
Finally, the conclusion of a report, depending on its purpose, should remind the reader of any action needed, ask for a response, indicate a willingness to answer questions, and provide contact information.

Caution: Please note that the format of business and professional reports includes short paragraphs of text. So, do not use a heading as a paragraph marker. In other words, a heading may be followed by several paragraph. See the example above of the introductory paragraph. The recommendation is in a second paragraph, not part of one long paragraph.

For additional information on business writing style and tone, consult a textbook or handbook.

a report is a document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation, which is tailored to the context of a given situation and audience. The purpose of reports is usually to inform. [6]

b) Discuss the format of a Technical Report.

A technical report (also: scientific report) is a document that describes the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research, or the state of a technical or scientific research problem.

A technical report is a formal report designed to convey technical information in a clear and easily accessible format. It is divided into sections which allow different readers to access different levels of information. This guide explains the commonly accepted format for a technical report; explains the purposes of the individual sections; and gives hints on how to go about drafting and refining a report in order to produce an accurate, professional document.
2 Structure
A technical report should contain the following sections;
Section Details
Title page Must include the title of the report. Reports for assessment, where the word length has been specified, will often also require the summary word count and the main text word count
Summary A summary of the whole report including important features, results and conclusions
Contents Numbers and lists all section and subsection headings with page numbers
Introduction States the objectives of the report and comments on the way the topic of the report is to be treated. Leads straight into the report itself. Must not be a copy of the introduction in a lab handout.
the body of the report Divided into numbered and headed sections. These sections separate the different main ideas in a logical order
Conclusions A short, logical summing up of the theme(s) developed in the main text
References Details of published sources of material referred to or quoted in the text (including any lecture notes and URL addresses of any websites used.
Bibliography Other published sources of material, including websites, not referred to in the text but useful for background or further reading.
Acknowledgements List of people who helped you research or prepare the report, including your proofreaders
Appendices (if appropriate) Any further material which is essential for full understanding of your report (e.g. large scale diagrams, computer code, raw data, specifications) but not required by a casual reader

15 Word processing / desktop publishing
Advantages Disadvantages
Word processing and desktop publishing packages offer great scope for endless revision of a document. This includes words, word order, style and layout. Word processing and desktop publishing packages never make up for poor or inaccurate content
They allow for the incremental production of a long document in portions which are stored and combined later They can waste a lot of time by slowing down writing and distracting the writer with the mechanics of text and graphics manipulation.
They can be used to make a document look stylish and professional. Excessive use of 'cut and paste' leads to tedious repetition and sloppy writing.
They make the process of proofreading and revision extremely straightforward If the first draft is word

c) What is the significance of graphics in report writing?

Graphics: The report should have graphics. Graphics include all kinds of possibilities, as a later chapter in this book will show. If you can't think of any graphics for your report project, you may not have a good topic [4]

July-2004 [14]
1. Answer the following in brief:
c) Distinguish between any three of the following:
i) E-Mail and Fax

E-mail, short for electronic mail and often abbreviated to e-mail, email or simply mail, is a store and forward method of composing, sending, storing, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems.
Fax is a telecommunications technology used to transfer copies of documents, especially using affordable devices operating over the telephone network
yet its disadvantages in quality and its proprietary format have relegated it to a position beneath email as the prevailing form of electronic document tranferral. [2]
iii) Memos and Letters [2]

A Memo is for ~inner~ communication. You would send a memo to your work colegues or fellow students/profesors from the same school.
A letter is for ~inter~ communication. You would send a letter to someone from a different company than yours, or a different school, etc.
A letter is more formal, requires more address information, politeness, use of titles.
Other than that they are basicly the same. You need a short informative subject,
You start with your MAIN POINT (one-three sentances). Then write your supporting details. EVERYING that is relevant. Don't leave things out, but don't put in things that aren't nessesary for the Main point.
Then make your request if there is one
Polite closing
Your initials/signature

5.b) Assume that one of your subordinate picked up a fight with his colleague yesterday and now, you have to issue a memo to the subordinate. Write a suitable memo for this case. [10]

January-2005 [26]

1.c) Highlights the importance of technical communication. [4]
• Performance characterization and improvement projects result in detailed analyses - presented in text and graphics - illustrating the important findings and improvements that were achieved.
• Software development projects result in clear, concise on-line user documentation, design documents and - of course - well-commented source code.
• System designs and architectures are developed through written documents that are incrementally improved through the design process. In some of Lone Eagle Systems' most recent work, automatically-generated Java code documentation and graphical architecture diagrams are combined in a unique way - resulting in easily-accessible on-line design documents
Technical documentation is essential for the smooth functioning of a company. Technical Documentation Services comprises of all activities, means and systems that provide information on how to use a product. This information in turn enables the user to understand the functioning of the product and to handle, maintain, repair and dispose it correctly and safely.

Also, in the absence of good and clear documentation written, either by your own company or a technical writing service, your IT staff will end up spending more time dealing with trying to solve technical problems. And this in turn leads to more work and waste of a lot of time that could have been better utilized. And all businesses, large or small, need well-written technical documentation to operate efficiently. Therefore most companies hire technical documentation writing services, especially technical writing services of India, to make the whole process easier for them.

However, if end-users feel that the technical documentation is too hard to learn, not easy to use, or too cumbersome, then it will not be effective or useful. So, the importance of good technical documentation writing services in India shouldn't be underestimated. A good technical writing service in India should make a product easy to understand and use, resulting in greater user acceptance.

Different companies outsource technical writing services to India for different purposes. Some companies that make products or software outsource technical writing services to India for technical manuals and user guides that'll explain the how to properly use the product. For example, manuals for computer printers; fax machines, modems etc.

these are intended for both customers as well as internal use. Most of the time, technical guides and manuals written by technical writing services include quick reference guides that provide organized reference during the use of a hardware or software, software user guides providing instructions on how to use a software product, and hardware installation guides and repair guides that give information on the various features and functions of a hardware product as well as how to install, modify, maintain or repair the piece of hardware. Sometimes there are even user guides that supply instructions on how to use a hardware product and how to modify or program its hardware/software.

You can also use the technical documentation written by an offshore technical writing service as a marketing tool, to share valuable information and strengthen the lines of communication between IT and the end-users. However, effective technical documentation written by any technical writing service will take some time and effort, but in the long run, its worth it.

g) Discuss the netiquette of e-mailing.
Netiquette, "network etiquette", is the convention on electronic forums (Usenet, mailing lists, live chat, and Internet forums) to facilitate efficient interaction.
An electronic mailing list (sometimes written as elist or e-list) is a special usage of e-mail that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users [4]
a) How do you write a technical report? Give an appropriate example.
The technical writing process can be divided into five steps:
1. Determine purpose and audience.
2. Collect information.
3. Organize and outline information.
4. Write the first draft.
5. Revise and edit.
Determining Purpose and Audience
The identification of the audience will affect many aspects of communication, from word selection and graphics usage to style and organization. A non-technical audience will not understand, or worse yet, even read a document that is heavy with jargon, while a technical audience may crave extra detail because it is critical for their work. Busy audiences will not have time to read an entire document, so content must be organized for ease of searching, for example by the frequent inclusion of headers, white space and other cues that guide attention. Other requirements will vary on the needs of the particular audience.
• Purpose
• Needed information
• Educational Background
Collecting Information
The next step is to collect information needed for accomplishing the stated purpose. Information may be collected via primary research, where the technical communicator conducts research first-hand, and secondary research, where work published by another person is used as an information source
Organize and Outline Information
Before writing the initial draft, it is important to organize all the ideas in a way that will make the document flow nicely. A good way of doing this is to write all random thoughts down on a paper, and then circle all main sections, connect the main sections to supporting ideas with lines, and delete all irrelevant material
Writing the First Draft
After the outline is completed, the next step is to write the first draft. The goal is to write down ideas from the outline as quickly as possible. Setting aside blocks of one hour or more, in a place free of distractions, will help the writer maintain a flow. Also, the writer should wait until the draft is complete to do any revising; stopping to revise at this stage will break the writer's flow. The writer should start with the section that is easiest for them, and write the summary only after the body is drafted.
Revising and Editing
Once the initial draft is laid out, editing and revising must be done to fine tune the draft into a final copy.
Adjust and reorganizing content
During this step, go back to your draft to 1) focus or elaborate on certain topics which deserve more attention, 2) shorten other sections, and 3) shift around certain paragraphs, sentences, or entire topics.
Edit for style
Style refers to changes that make the writing more interesting, appealing, or more readable. Some changes are made by choice, not for correctness, and may include:
• shorten paragraphs
• rearrange paragraphs
• change passive-voice sentences to an active voice
• shorten sentences
• define terminology
• add headings, lists, graphics

Edit for grammar
At this point, you can start looking through the document for grammatical errors, such as comma usage and common word mixups (for example, there/their/they're). To get the most out of this step, pay special attention to mistakes which you have repeatedly made in your previous writing. [10]
b) Discuss the basic features of business letters. [4]

A business letter is a letter written in formal language, usually used when writing from one business organization to another, or for correspondence between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties
Parts of a Business Letter
Business Letters in the United States usually contain the following information (in this order):
• Letterhead or sender's address
• Date
• Inside address
• Salutation or Greeting
• Message
• Closing
• Signature, printed name, and position of sender
In some situations, a business letter may also include the following optional information:
• Reference (RE:)
Carbon Copy Recipients (CC:)
Enclosures (ENC:)
Reference Initials (of the typist)

c) What are the principles of c Graphic designing? [4]

Graphic design is the process of communicating visually using typography and images to present information
2.2 Balance
Symetrical, radial, formal, and informal ways of arranging elements on a page to achieve visual balance is the focus of this class. Also covers the 'rule of thirds' and other structural elements.
2.2 Balance

2.3 Proximity/Unity
Learn how to arrange elements on the page through proximity -- keeping like items together and creating unity by how close or far apart elements are from each other.
Lessons not yet online [See these self-study resources on Proximity]

2.4 Alignment
While centered text has its place it is often the mark of a novice designer. Learn how to align text and graphics to create more interesting, dynamic, or appropriate layouts.
Lessons not yet online [See these self-study resources on Alignment]

2.5 Repetition/Consistency
Get an understanding of the importance of consistency for the reader and ways to create a consistent and balanced look through different types of repetition.
Lessons not yet online [See these self-study resources on Consistency]

2.6 Contrast
Big vs. small, black vs. white. These are some ways to create contrast and visual interest. Learn a variety of ways to use contrast.
Lessons not yet online [See these self-study resources on Contrast]

2.7 White Space
The art of nothing is another description for this principle. View examples of good and bad use of white space and how to avoid trapped white space.
Lessons not yet online [See these self-study resources on White Space]

July-2005 [52]
a) Draft a Memorandum asking an employee to show cause why action should not be taken against him for derelictions of duty. [4]

b) Write a goodwill message congratulating a company on winning an award. [4]
Goodwill letters often come as a surprise, are greatly appreciated, and are an effective way to build relationships.
• Whether expressing gratitude, appreciation, recognition, or condolences, be sincere in your remarks. Most people can tell when you are not.
• Keep your letter focused on the recipient, not on yourself or your company.
• Do not write this letter solely for the purpose of making a sales pitch. The purpose of this letter is to spread goodwill, without promoting any hidden agenda.
• Keep your letter brief.
• Be specific when writing this letter. For example, rather than writing vague generalities about a job well done, include details that demonstrate what the person did to deserve the recognition.
• Try to stay away from clichés and canned expressions. Be creative.
• Tips: When congratulating a friend, employee, family member, or associate on winning an honor or scholarship, express only the most sincere sentiments. You should not be excessively effusive in your praise, since such language is usually considered phony, nor should you overstep the bounds of decorum by using more familiar language than your relationship warrants.

c) Compose a Press Release regarding the launch of a new product by your company.

While there are several types of press releases (such as general news releases, event releases, product press releases, and more recently social media press releases), press releases very often have several traits of their structure in common. This helps journalists separate press releases from other PR communication methods, such as pitch letters or media advisories. Some of these common structural elements include:
• Headline - used to grab the attention of journalists and briefly summarize the news.
• Dateline - contains the release date and usually the originating city of the press release.
• Introduction - first paragraph in a press release, that generally gives basic answers to the questions of who, what, when, where and why.
• Body - further explanation, statistics, background, or other details relevant to the news.
• Boilerplate - generally a short "about" section, providing independent background on the issuing company, organization, or individual.
• Close - in North America, traditionally the symbol "-30-" appears after the boilerplate or body and before the media contact information, indicating to media that the release is ending. A more modern equivalent has been the "###" symbol. In other countries, other means of indicating the end of the release may be used, such as the text "ends".
• Media Contact Information - name, phone number, email address, mailing address, or other contact information for the PR or other media relations contact person [4]

d) Draft an invitation to a Seminar on "WTO and Indian Industry", and a reply accepting the invitation.

Be sure to include in your invitation letter:
The name of the person sponsoring the event (who is the host/hostess?)
Exactly who is invited (can someone bring a guest, spouse, child?)
What type of social event is being held
The date, address, and time of the event
Directions or a simple map if the location may be difficult to find
What type of dress is appropriate or preferred
The phone number and deadline to reply; precede these facts with “R.S.V.P.” (French abbreviation for “please reply”).
Two Quick Invitation Letter Tips
Picture your guests smiling when they read your letter of invitation
Try to send your invitation letter two weeks or more in advance
Whether you're planning a formal or informal occasion, we'll help you find the words to make an excellent first impression on your guests. [4]

e) Write a letter to console the death of the Managing Director of an affiliated company. [4]

A letter of condolence may be one of the most difficult things you'll have to write as they're the result of a time of sadness and often reflection. The most common reason for writing a letter of condolence occurs when someone you know has lost a loved one and you wish to express your sorrow for their loss and to offer them some support and words of comfort. However, they are not specifically to mark someone's death.
When to Write a Letter of Condolence
You may also feel the need to write a letter of condolence when somebody's suffering after a divorce or if there has been a serious accident or injury or they can be even be written to people who may have been made redundant or failed an important exam etc.
However, for the purpose of this article, here is an example of an appropriate letter to somebody who has lost a loved one. The letter expresses sympathy at the person's loss and the thoughts for those who have been left behind as well as taking some time to reflect upon the good times spent with the person who has died and memories of them and affection for them.
Here is an example of a letter of condolence.
Dear Joan,
I was deeply saddened to hear about the loss of Eric after his long struggle with cancer.
It was only last week when I was at the bowling club that Tommy Allan was asking me how Eric was doing and we were having a laugh and a joke about the time we all went to Blackpool and Eric fell off that donkey and got covered in wet sand. We had some great weekends away together didn't we, and Eric was always the life and soul of the party. I'll also remember the time when Bill was made redundant and Eric went to great lengths and showed great kindness in finding him the job in the factory which Bill was very grateful for.
I know it has been a difficult time for you too over recent months. We all know how proudly independent Eric was and we know just how much love, devotion and total commitment you put into caring for him during his illness, especially when he was no longer able to spend time in the garden and in his beloved greenhouse.
I hope you will take great comfort over the next few weeks and months in knowing that Eric is now free from any further pain and suffering. He will be looking down upon you with great love and affection and giving you the strength to put all the recent months of sadness behind you and the encouragement to look forward to happier times ahead.
With our deepest sympathy and affection,
Ethel and Bill
How to Write a Memo
Here is an example of an e-mailed ‘memo’ to alert staff about a visit from overseas guests.
Dear ‘Team’,
Just to let you know that Richard will be arriving at the office about 11am this morning with a party of delegates from Hong Kong. Therefore from 10.30 onwards, can you all make sure that you do not have any drinks on your desks and that your desks are free from clutter. Also, no chewing gum whilst they’re here. Richard needs to make a good impression on these visitors regarding a large order for the circuit boards so first impressions count and all that stuff.
I appreciate your co-operation.

f) Write a telegraphic complaint to SOD, MNTL against delay in installation of a telephone.
If you ever find yourself needing to make a written complaint about your holiday, you should firstly find out the name of the person you should address it to. You will get a much faster response than if you were to simply send it c/o ‘The Complaints Department’.
In deciding how to structure your complaint letter, you should include the name of the hotel (or other type of accommodation), the name of the resort, the dates you were there (also include a specific date, if the complaint arises from an issue on any given day). You should then clearly state your reasons for feeling the need to complain and give them as much information as possible. You might wish to include photographs to illustrate your complaint but make sure you keep copies. Once you have done that, you need to state what course of action you would like the company to take.
The tone of your letter should be firm, but polite and neither abusive nor too emotive, although you are fully justified in stating how a particular problem or issue made you feel.
You will find an example of how to write this letter in our Essential Letters Packs, which can be accessed via the Downloads section of this site
How to write it
Dear Mr Cavanagh,
I am replying to your letter, dated 29 December in response to my original correspondence to you about my stay at the Hotel Miramar, dated 19 December in which I described how my family were badly mistreated during our holiday booked through your company (Your ref: 34512/RT).
Although I do appreciate the fact that you got back to me promptly and have acknowledged that your company were at fault, I regret that I cannot accept your offer of a £300 voucher off my next booking with you as adequate and neither is it appropriate compensation for the ordeal your company put us through in my opinion.
As stated in my previous letter, the holiday cost £1350 in total and the first 2 days were totally ruined, as you rightly acknowledged in your response. The value of the voucher you have been prepared to offer me does not even compensate for those first 2 days were we never received the level of service we had been promised when we booked. Furthermore, those events ruined our experience over the entire week of the holiday. A voucher would simply not be acceptable as I would not wish to travel with your company again after our experience and the value of the voucher is also a derisory sum, in my opinion, given what we’ve endured.
Therefore, I would urge you to reconsider your offer and I would be prepared to accept a 75% cash or cheque refund of the money we paid for the holiday as fair and just compensation. This equates to a refund of £1012.50.
I hope you will agree that this figure is fair and respond with a cheque or payment back to my card of the said amount within 28 days of this letter. If I do not hear from you by then, I will have no option but to seek legal advice with regard to pursuing my compensation claim further.
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Yours sincerely,
Colin Atkinson

g) Your bank has introduced a Credit Card in association with Master Card. Draft a circular to a current account holder offering the facility to him with a pre-approved credit limit. Offer to waive the annual charges for the first year. [4]

4. a) How will you represent the facts and figures of your organization through a report? Briefly define the key features of report. [6]

1. Define the purpose of your report
2. Define the readers of your report
3. Define your sources of data
4. Gather and analyse your data
5. Decide on your recommendations
6. Decide on the key points to include in the report
7. Decide on the best order for your points
8. Decide on the best structure for the report
9. Select data to support your key points
10. Write a draft
11. Prepare tables and graphics
12. Edit and proof-read the report
13. Write an executive summary
14. Format the report professionally
15. Make a title page and table of contents

6. Distinguish between any three of the following:

b) Agenda and Minutes.
An agenda is a list of meeting activities in the order in which they are to be taken up, beginning with the call to order and ending with adjournment. It usually includes one or more specific items of business to be considered
The agenda is usually headed with the date, time and location of the meeting, followed by a series of points outlining the order of the meeting.
Points on a typical agenda may include:
Welcome/open meeting
support for absence
Approve minutes of the previous meeting
Matters arising from the previous meeting
a list of specific points to be discussed — this section is where the bulk of the discussion in the meeting usually takes place.
Any other business (AOB) — allowing a participant to raise another point for discussion. Arrange/announce details of next meeting
Close meeting

Minutes also known as protocols, are the instant written record of a meeting or hearing.
the moment of the hearing by a typist or court recorder at the meeting, who may record the meeting in shorthand, and then type the minutes and issue them to the participants afterwards. Alternatively, the meeting may be audiorecorded and the minutes typed later. The minutes of certain entities, such as a corporate board of directors, must be kept and are important legal documents. [6]
c) Reports and Proposals. [6]
d) Pie Chart and Bar Chart
A pie chart is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating relative magnitudes or frequencies or percents. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. Together, the sectors create a full disk. It is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced.
A bar chart, also known as a bar graph, is a chart with rectangular bars of lengths proportional to that value that they represent. Bar charts are used for comparing two or more values. The bars can be horizontally or vertically oriented. Sometimes a stretched graphic is used instead of a solid bar.
. [6]

January-2006 [32]
a) Explain, how graphs, charts and other graphics in a written report make the report more effective in communicating desired messages and information. [6]
A picture is worth ten thousand words. Graphics and other Illustration made report more readable. They are effective in meeting their communication objectives. Pay attention to the visual appeal of written reports. Visual images are more powerful than written text. Solid pages of text tend to turn readers off. Intersperse text with pictures that focus on a single survey finding. Make use of headings, subheadings, and well-placed tables, charts, or other graphics. Excel, PowerPoint, and Lotus are examples of data analysis and presentation software that are available. Tables, graphs, and charts should complement the text and illustrate the findings. Figures can be used to create interest, attract attention, save space, better convey quantifiable information, and show relationships between results. Title your graphs so they clearly describe the content and the message you want to convey. Use your Key Findings as a model
b) 'A memo is in nature of a letter and is yet not a letter.' Discuss. [6]
a) Assume that in your company, the rate of dearness allowance has increased from 25% to 30% of basic pay of employees. As a head of the Establishment Section, write a circular for the company's employees informing about such an increase in dearness allowance.9]
This is a letter with the same contents addressed to different people. Like an ordinary letter, it is an interpersonal written communication, with a general content, for which there is no specific provision in the processing of an administrative procedure. It allows various different matters to be dealt with and is written in a flexible style
Format: DIN A4 (210 x 297 mm).

See document and sections (future link)
A circular, like a letter, allows the writer to deal with various different matters. Because of this, its structure is more flexible, and therefore more complex, than other administrative documents.
Generally speaking, the main features that need to be taken into account in writing a circular are as follows:
• Make sure the language you use is appropriate to the degree of formality required depending on the type of relationship between you and the people you are writing to. The degree of formality will always be somewhere on the continuum between a respectful, neutral tone and a cordial tone.
• Make sure the salutation and valediction (the greeting at the beginning and the formula with which you sign off at the end) and the personal treatment you use in addressing the people you are writing to are appropriate to the general tone of the circular.
• Give the contents of the circular a logical structure by separating it into short paragraphs: introduce the reason for the circular; present the facts, arguments or considerations in detail; end with a conclusion based on a synthesis, a request, a proposal, etc.
• Express your ideas clearly, precisely and concisely.
• Use the first person singular (I): I would like to inform you ..., I am grateful for ..., etc.
• However, in certain cases, the first person plural (we) may be appropriate, as it conveys the idea that you are writing on behalf of the institution, or your unit within it, as a whole: we would like to inform you .., we are grateful for ..., etc.
Introductory formulae:
- I am writing to inform you / tell you ...
- We are writing to inform you / tell you / let you know that...
- For your information, I am pleased to inform you / tell you that ...
Concluding formulae:
- For all these reasons, I would ask/request you to ...
- If you would like any further information ...
- Please do not hesitate to contact me/us if you need anything...
- Thanking you in advance...
- I am very grateful to you / would like to thank you for your interest / the time you have given to this matter ...
- I would sincerely like to thank you for ...
1. Identification of the document
The details identifying the document must be written in the upper right-hand margin. They are as follows:

- Ref. ("reference"): the document's classification code for the issuing body.
2. Salutation
The formula used in the salutation must be appropriate to the tone of the relationship expressed in the body of the circular. Since a circular is addressed to a variety of people, both men and women, the formula must cover both genders. In some cases, one term is sufficient (Colleague), in others, two terms will be needed (Sir/Madam).
Some common formulae, in decreasing order of formality, are:
Dear Sir or Madam,
Dear Colleague,
Dear Friend,
3. Body
The information should be set out in the most logical way:
- Introduction: presentation of the reason for the circular
- Development: description/explanation of the facts, arguments, etc.
- Conclusion: request, summary of the facts, etc.
4. Valediction
The formula used for the valediction must be appropriate to that used for the salutation, and both of these must accord with the overall tone of the circular. Some common formulae used for the valediction are listed here, in decreasing order of formality, together with the corresponding salutation:

Dear Sir or Madam, à Yours faithfully,
Dear Colleague, à Yours sincerely, / Kind regards, / Best regards,
Dear Friend, à Yours sincerely, / Kind regards, / With best wishes,
5. Signature
This section must include the following items in the following order.
- Signature
- Name and surname(s)
- Post or unit
6. Date
This must include:
- The place where the letter is written.
- Date: the day (in figures), the month (in letters) and the year (in figures and in full).
7. Additional information
The initials of the person writing the letter (in capitals) and those of the person typing it (in lower case) separated by a forward slash (/): for example, CD/mc. This information is put at the end in the University house-style.
Postscript (PS): The abbreviation PS is used at the end of the document to introduce any additional information, such as references to documents. You can also indicate the presence of any material enclosed with it by the abbreviation "Encl.", followed by the name or brief description of the enclosure, at the end of the circular.
Subject: a brief description of the subject to which the circular refers. This information should go at the top of the letter, after section 1.
Ref.: ...........
Dear Manager,
As in previous years, I am pleased to tell you that Pompeu Fabra University has planned various activities to help students in their final year of secondary school to decide on the best choice of university course.
This year, we would like to highlight a new initiative - tutorial sessions to be held by lecturers from each of the courses with a view to providing personal guidance for students requesting it. These tutorials will be held from 3.30 to 8.30 p.m. between 25 April and 6 May. All students interested in attending need to do is to phone the Course Guidance Helpline on (93) 542 23 18 to arrange a time.
We would also like to offer you the chance, as we did last year, to install one or more Pompeu University multimedia information screens in your school during March, April and May. The instructions for requesting the installation of such screens and the relevant terms and conditions can be found on the enclosed form.
I would also like to tell you that you will shortly receive specific information about the following activities: the sending out of information brochures about the University and the courses taught at it, the University's presence at the Saló de l'Ensenyament (Education Show) in Barcelona and the holding of the usual information sessions at our premises in April.
Thank you for your inestimable help. If you have any queries or would like any further information, please do not hesitate to get in touch with us.
Yours faithfully,
Victòria Alberich i Balcells
Vice-rector for Academic Development and Teaching Staff
Barcelona, 16 February 1994

b) Due to some urgent personal work, you are supposed to go out of city and it is likely that you will not join office for the next 4 days. Write down an e-mail, which you would like to send to your boss informing about your absence from office and the fact that you will be out of city. [9]
Write a meaningful subject line.
Keep the message focused and readable.
Avoid attachments.
Identify yourself clearly.
Be kind -- don't flame.
Don't assume privacy.
Distinguish between formal and informal situations.
Respond Promptly.
Show Respect and Restraint.
Please note and follow the guidelines below concerning the writing of company e-mail messages.

Give the message a subject/title. E-mail messages without a subject may not be opened because of a fear of viruses and especially note that it is very easy to forget to type this important information.

Subject contents
Keep the subject short and clear but avoid such headings as:
‘Good News’, ‘Hello’, ‘Message from Mary’. These headings are common in messages containing viruses. Short but specific headings are needed,e.g. Order No. 2348X
Delayed Shipment
Laboratory Equipment Order

Start the message with a greeting so as to help create a friendly but business-like tone. The choice of using the other name versus the surname will depend on who you are writing to. If you have communicated with the receiver previously and he/she is at a similar level to you, then the use of the other name would be appropriate. If the receiver is more senior to you, or if you are in doubt, it would be safer (particularly in the first communication) to use the person’s surname/family name together with a title,
e.g. Dear Mr Smithson, Dear Ms Stringer.

It is also becoming quite common to write the greeting without a comma,
e.g. Dear Miss Lawson
e.g. Dear KK

Start with a clear indication of what the message is about in the first paragraph.
Give full details in the following paragraph(s).
Make sure that the final paragraph indicates what should happen next.
e.g. I will send a messenger to your office on Tuesday morning to collect the faulty goods.
e.g. Please let me have your order by the beginning of the month.

Any action that you want the reader to do should be clearly described, using politeness phrases. Subordinates should use expressions such as 'Could you...' or ' I would be grateful if...'. Superior staff should also use polite phrases, for example, 'Please...'.

Make sure you refer, in the main message, to any attachments you are adding and of course make extra sure that you remember to include the attachment(s). As attachments can transmit viruses, try not to use them, unless you are sending complicated documents. Copy-and-paste text-only contents into the body of the e-mail. If you use an attachment, make sure the file name describes the content, and is not too general; e.g. 'message.doc' is bad, but 'QA Report 2008.doc' is good.

End the message in a polite way. Common endings are:
Yours sincerely, Best regards, Best wishes, Regards,
If you did not put a comma after the greeting at the beginning of the message, then do not put a comma after the ending either,
e.g. Best wishes
e.g. Regards

Include your name at the end of the message. It is most annoying to receive an email which does not include the name of the sender. The problem is that often the email address of the sender does not indicate exactly who it is from, e.g. 0385915d@polyu.edu.hk

7.b) Name any two software, which you think will be of utmost use in making your annual report an effective one. [2]

July-2006 [33]
1. b) “Every communication has a specific purpose without which it has no relevance.” Therefore, you are asked to state a specific purpose for each of the following communication tasks:
i) A memo to clients of your company about your stall at the upcoming trade fair at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi. [2]
ii) A letter to a customer who has not made a payment for three months. [2]
iii) A memo to employees about the office’s high electricity bills. [2]
iv) A phone call to a supplier enquiring about delay in dispatch of the required units ordered by the company. [2]
v) A report to prospective user of a company’s products about the company’s new launches in near future. [2]
3. c) Illustrate with suitable example(s) who a memo differs from a letter. [5]

4.a) Assume that your company is going to introduce smart cards for the employees from the next month. As the head of Employees Relation Cell, write a circular for the company’s employees informing them that for smartcard purposes, a photo session is organized on next Tuesday from 10:00 am till 4:00 pm in the Common Room on the first flow. [9]
b) As the head of Northern Region Sales Division of the company, you are supposed to submit monthly report to the Vice President, Marketing who sits in the Corporate Office, Rajendra Place, New Delhi. Due to your illness, you are not attending the office and as a consequence, you can not submit the required report for the present month. Assuming that you can send e-mails from your house, write e-mail to the Vice President, Marketing stating your inability to send the monthly report. [9]

January-2007 [16]
b) Discuss merits and demerits of e-mail over other forms of technical communication. [4]
Although e-mail itself has many benifits, some drawbacks do exist, some of which are listed below:
1. The sender could send viruses and malware through attachments if recepient doesn't scan it.
2. Your inbox is subject to spam and unwanted ads from may sources which could be a nuisance and could cause you to delete some of your personal messages.
3. Emails "bounce" between different servers all over the world befre reaching you and could be stolen or modified by any knowledgeable hacker.
4. Emails could be misunderstood especially if the email is miswritten by the sender.
5. A long email could cause the recepient to lose interest and stop reading the email altogether
The advantages of e-mail are:
1.It's fast - Messages can be sent anywhere around the world in an instant
2. It's cheap - Transmission usually costs nothing, or at the most, very little
3. It's simple - Easy to use, after initial set-up
4. It's efficient - Sending to a group can be done in one step
5. It's versatile - Pictures, powerpoints or other files can be sent too

2. a) Describe, giving one example, the functions and form of memorandums. [6]

c) By creating the facts of situation through your imagination write a report determining the effects of physical fitness programs on workers’ health the productivity. [6]

July-2007 [32]
d) Distinguish between:
i) Memos and Letters [2]
a) Assume that you are the head of the Accounts Department of your company. For tax purposes, you need the following information from your employees by December 31, 2007:
i) Any contribution made towards Public Provident Fund, Life Insurance, Children School Fee, NSCs etc.
ii) Any other income which employees want to report to the company for taxation purposes. This information has to be provided on a prescribed form which can be obtained from Mr. A. K. Tayal, Accounts Department.
You are required to write a circular for the company’s employees requesting them to provide the above information on the prescribed form by December 31, 2007. [12]

5. a) Suppose you noticed on a particular day that an employee of your department was misbehaving with a customer and it would bring a lot of disrepute to the company. For this, write a memo asking the employee why an action should not be taken against him for misbehaving with the customer. [8]

b) Which form of graphical tools would you like to use in a business report for the following types of information?
i) Record of Earning Per Share of a company over its last 5 years.
ii) Comparison of sales of three main products of your company over the last 5 years.
iii) Breakdown of the total expenses of your company incurred during 2006-07.
iv) Price trend of the cost of the main raw material over the last decade.
iv) A comparison of changes in the profits after tax of 5 subsidiary companies of your company. [10]

3. Communication Processes

January-2004 [31]
1. Explain the following:
c) The concept of noise in communication.

Noise may involve errors of communication in either content or format. The communication may be "over their heads" or "beside the point" from the hearer's perspective. The channel or medium, or the level of language used -- that is, the format -- may also interfere with communication, with the perception of the message. This interference is noise.

Some well-delivered, factually-correct messages may be delivered with so much cultural noise, that, though the technical language is correct, the message is obscured by the cultural form and context. All because the speaker has not taken seriously the cultural integrity of his audience. Cultural noise interferes [4]

d) Negotiation skills. [4]

g) Importance of feedback in a communication.

Because you need "feed back" or another parties input for "communication" otherwise it's just considered "talking too". Also if you get feed back you can be assured that the other person was actively listening and that they understood what you said. Because you need "feed back" or another parties input for "communication" otherwise it's just considered "talking too". Also if you get feed back you can be assured that the other person was actively listening and that they understood what you said [4]

3.b) Which communication method would you use in each of the following:

Communication is the method by which people share their ideas, information, opinions and feelings. People sharing ideas, information, opinions and feelings may contribute to the operations of teams and the work of individuals. Communication is a two-way activity between two or more people. There are various modes of communication, some of which are used more commonly in some workplaces than others. [6]

i) Congratulating your colleague on passing an important examination.
ii) Informing employees about an annual dinner and dance,
iii) Putting a nervous applicant at ease while waiting for an interview.
iv) Putting forward a proposal to your boss for a change in company’s policy.
v) Sending an urgent message to an overseas client.
vi) Describe the location of a hotel where your company is going to host a seminar.
6. a) What does the expressions ‘non-verbal communication’ means? Give examples of some non-verbal communication signals, which you might associate with:
i) Disagreement
ii) Discomfort
iii) Attentive listening.
iv) Sympathy.
v) Boredom. [8]

b) “Body language is critical to oral communication”. Discuss with reference to professional
presentation. [5]

July-2004 [24]
1. Answer the following in brief:
a) v) Explain what is meant by the body language. [2]
Body language is an important part of communication which can constitute 50% or more of what we are communicating. If you wish to communicate well, then it makes sense to understand how you can (and cannot) use your body to say what you mean.

b) State with reasons whether you agree or disagree with the following statements:
i) The misunderstanding of an instruction can seriously affect the efficiency of a manager. [2]
iv) When a manager is communicating the same information to different levels, written communication is better than oral. [2]
b) How to be a good negotiator? Explain the steps to establish mutual terms of agreement. [9]
b) Explain the use of silence in communication.

One of the most important parts of any conversation is the silence. Silence can serve many functions in a conversation and how you manage it determines your level of sophistication. Here are some points to keep in mind about silence in communication.
1. Allowing silence in a conversation puts pressure on the other person.
It’s conventional in the US not to allow any sort of extended silence in a conversation. Therefore, to allow one puts pressure on the other person to "fill air time". Some interviewers, for instance, use this technique to see what will happen. Often the person will “spill” – saying exactly the thing they didn’t want to say.

2. Silence can indicate hostility.
Withdrawing, “stonewalling,” and pouting in silence are ways some people handle anger. Such a silence can be pulsating with bad feelings and elicit anger on the part of the other person.
3. Silence can indicate disagreement.
While it’s almost never an indication of indifference, silence can indicate that the other person is having negative emotions. When we experience anger, fear, or embarrassment, our thinking brain shuts down. We sit there fuming, unable to speak; enraged and unable to find words; afraid and scared speechless. Some people are “flooded” with these emotions, and unable to respond.
4. Silence can indicate profoundness, such as awe or horror.
Sometimes when we’re listening to someone else, we hear something that leaves us speechless because it really goes beyond words. Listening to someone talk about a dreadful trauma they’ve endured, or a beautiful, almost-sacred interaction with another human being, or a description of an awesome natural event such as a sunset or a volcano eruption are examples. Somehow when we listen to such things, the ordinary “Oh” and “Wow” and “That’s awesome” don’t seem enough, and so we fall silent.
5. Silence can indicate respect.
In some cultures more than others, silence indicates respect. A young person may be expected to approach an older person or a person in authority and remain silent until recognized, acknowledged and spoken to.
6. Silence can indicate contemplation.
The more introverted your communication partner, the more likely they will think before they speak. Extraverts discover what they’re thinking and how they feel by talking. Introverts figure it all out inside their own head and heart before giving voice to it.
7. Silence can be intentional rudeness.
Because of the nature of normal conversation in the US, allowing an extended silence can be perceived as rudeness. It can also be meant that way. Refusing to reply to the other person is a way of ignoring them.
8. Silence can be the creation of a listening space.
When you are profoundly listening to someone, you create an open space for them to talk into that’s almost palpable. Good listeners know how to do this, and it can be learned. It’s an openness that you transmit through nonverbal means.
9. Silence can be an indication of empathy.
When we're really tuning in to how the other person feels, we're listening more to the tone of their voice, cadence and speed rather than the actual words, so reply with words may not be the most appropriate response. Sometimes sounds are more attuned … a murmur, a sigh, sucking in the breath in shock, soothing sounds, clucking (tsk tsk), or shaking the head and going uh, uh, uh.
10. How you manage silence in conversation is an important part of emotional intelligence.
Excellent communicators can allow silence when it’s effective or called for; can avoid being pressured into “spilling” when silence is used manipulatively; offer silence as a gift or sign of respect; interpret the silence of others appropriately; understand how other cultures use silence; mindfully regulate the use of silence; and are comfortable with silence and understand its many uses. [5]
b) Write short notes on any three of the following:
iv) Reading and Comprehension skills [4]

January-2005 [21]
a) Describe the factors, which are central to communication skills. [8]
a) Show how oral communications is a key to success? [5]
c) With suitable example highlight the facilitator and participant skills required in Meeting? [4]
d) Show how oral communications skills are different from written communication skill? [4]

July-2005 [42]
a) What are basic sources from which one can derive negotiating power as an individual or as a team leader? Explain them briefly. [6]
b) What are few common arrangements of seating at meeting? How does seating arrangement impact on the outcome of the meeting? [6]
c) Explain, how the office telephone may be used efficiently for making and receiving calls. [6]
c) How will you structure a meeting? [6]
6. Distinguish between any three of the following:
a) Voice and Speech. [6]
7. Write short notes on any three of the following:
b) Features of good speech. [6]
c) Feedback is a gateway to "Communication". [6]

January-2006 [33]
a) 'Needless repetition of words and ideas add to the length of sentences without contributing to their meanings. Therefore, avoiding repetition of words and ideas enhances the effectiveness of the communication.' In .the light of this statement, write down sentences to eliminate repetition of words and ideas shown in italics from the following statements:
i) We must assemble together at 10:30 AM in the morning.
ii) If you are not satisfied, then return it back to us.
iii) One should understand the basic fundamentals of clear writing.
iv) We should plan in advance for future. [4]
c) Comment to establish the truth of the following statements:
i) "Long, involved sentences tend to be difficult to understand. Therefore, the shorter the sentence, the better."
ii) "Action speaks louder than words." [4]
f) Name six golden rules for conducting an effective meeting. [4]
b) "Good communication makes a manager more efficient and effective in achieving organizational goals." Critically examine the statement. [7]
c) Do you agree with the statement that - 'Silence is also sometimes a good means of communication. ‘ [6]
c) Write short notes on any three of the following:
iii) Characteristics of a good negotiator [4]
iv) Body Language and its significance [4]

July-2006 [53]
a) ‘Non-verbal communication is more reliable and more efficient than verbal communication. And, body language is the most powerful means of non-verbal communication.’ In the light of it, describe what the following body movements exhibited by someone during a course of conversation communication to you:
i) Shifting one’s body continuously while seated [2]
ii) Twirling and playing with one’s hair [2]
iii) Sitting in a sprawled position [2]
iv) Rolling one’s eyes [2]
v) Extending a weak handshake [2]
a) Suggest any four ways in which an individual can communicate non-verbally. [4]
b) “In an effective communication, a picture is worth a thousand words.” Critically examine the statement. [8]
a) Suggest one situation where you would prefer to use written communication over oral communication and another situation where you would prefer oral communication over written communication. [8]
b) “No clarity of writing without clarity of thought.” Discuss. [5]
a) Explain the role of silence in communication. [6]
c) Write short notes on any three of the following:
i) Barriers of Oral Communication [4]
ii) Role of feedback in communication [4]
iii) Win-win situation’ in negotiations [4]

January-2007 [28]
c) What are the communication processes that are important for business? [4]
b) What is meant by the terms ‘channel’, ‘noise’ and ‘shared meaning’ in the context of communication. [6]
a) Discuss briefly the techniques involved in good oral communication. [6]
b) Discuss briefly the techniques that you will use in the successful conducting of a meeting. [6]
c) What are the key elements required for developing good public speaking skills? [6]

July-2007 [36]
a) Read the following paragraph and identify a sentence that should NOT be present as it does not stick to the topic introduced in the first few sentences:
The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) served as one of the largest stock markets for the Indian investors. But due to infrastructure problems and the mode by which investors from far flung areas of India transacted, made and received payments on buying and selling of financial scripts resulted in varying time periods for completion of the deal. Further, transactions have no transparency and were irregular and at times resulted in uncertainties. There was a need for a stock exchange to bring in uniformity, transparency and seamless flow of information for the benefit of the Indian investors and also the nation as a whole. The BSE has its office at Nariman Point, Mumbai with a 20 floors building and 457 computers connected to an Unix Operating System. Therefore, we need a stock exchange, which would merge the financial markets of India into one whole unit. The birth of the National Stock Exchange fulfills this need. [5]
c) Rewrite the following sentences to make them more straight and suitable for a fax message:
i) As per your fax of 13th March 2007, you are advised that the shipment will arrive on 23rd April 2007
ii) Please find enclosed a map of the location of the venue for the aforementioned meeting.
iii) We would be most obliged if you could see your way clearing to giving this matter your urgent attention. [9]
a) What do you understand by non-verbal communication? Give any three example of non-verbal communication. [6]
b) “Silence can communicate what you do not want to communicate verbally.” Do you agree with the statement? If yes, give an example where you would like to use silence as means of communication. [6]
c) What is the meant by ‘Field of Experience’ in communication process? Explain any two situations where communication would fail. [6]
b) Write short notes on any three of the following:
iii) Characteristics of a good negotiator [4]

4. The Art of Listening

January-2004 [16]
1. Explain the following:
e) Difference between hearing and listening. [4]
a) Enumerate and discuss various stages of effective listening. [8]
c) How does gender difference intervene and impact the process of listening? Elucidate. [4]

July-2004 [23]
b) State with reasons whether you agree or disagree with the following statements:
ii) In getting people to listen, subject content is more important than the manner in which the subject is put across. [2]
c) Distinguish between any three of the following:
iv) Hearing and Listening [2]
a) Why listening is the most important of the communication skill? [5]
c) State what prevents a person to be a good listener. [8]
a) Mr. Shiv Kumar is your good friend but he is a poor listener. He wants to be an effective listener and for that he needs your help. You are required to develop guidelines necessary for improving the listening skills of your friend. [6]

January-2005 [12]
d) How is the art of listening central to communication? [4]
c) Discuss the benefits of effective listening. [4]
d) What will you do to improve your listening skills? [4]

July-2005 [6]
b) Briefly explain the ten components that are essential for effective listening. [6]

January-2006 [5]
a) Suggest, what steps one should take in order to improve upon one's listening? [5]

July-2006 [4]
c) Write short notes on any three of the following:
iv) Characteristics of a good listener [4]

January-2007 [22]
d) Show how listening is central to business communication. [4]
a) What are the benefits of effective listening? [6]
b) What steps would you propose for improving listening skills? [6]
c) Highlight the elements of good talking. [6]

July-2007 [6]
d) Distinguish between:
ii) Hearing and Listening [2]
b) Write short notes on any three of the following:
iv) Talking to make others listen [4]

5. Interpersonal Network

January-2004 [18]
a) Differentiate between formal and informal communication.
Formal communication; this is when communicating during an interview or a meeting ex; with a person you don`t know or otherwise your manager.
Informal communication; this communication occurs when talking to family,friend people you know. [4]
b) Along what possible routes can formal communication flow within an organization? Discuss with suitable illustration. [8]
c) “Our communication styles have direct effect on our interpersonal relations”. Comment. [6]

July-2004 [6]
1. Answer the following in brief:
a) i) What is ‘horizontal communication’? [2]
ii) Write two important differences between formal and informal communication channels. [2]
c) Distinguish between any three of the following:
v) Personal Communication and Mass Communication
Personal communicationPersonal communication may be unpublished lecture notes, letters, memos, personal interviews, telephone conversations, email or messages from non-archived discussion groups or bulletin boards – all these sources are non-recoverable from the reader’s perspective and are not to be included in the reference list, but should be cited in text as they are referred to
Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of various means by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media. It is usually understood to relate to newspaper and magazine publishing, radio, television, and film, as they are used both for disseminating news and for advertising. [2]
January-2005 [10]
a) Distinguish between formal and informal communication and show the significance of each in business communication. [6]
b) Discuss with appropriate examples the various communication styles.
It is important to understand how your communication style is interpreted by others to avoid miscommunication and misunderstandings. The goal is communicate with assertion and avoid an aggressive, passive-aggressive or passive style of communication.

Use the following checklist to see how you communicate over all or to evaluate a particular exchange you’ve had to see how you can improve on your communication style.

Aggressive Communication
__You choose and make decisions for others.

__You are brutally honest.

__You are direct and forceful.

__You are self enhancing and derogatory.

__You’ll participate in a win-lose situation only if you’ll win.

__You demand your own way.

__You feel righteous, superior, controlling – later possibly feeling guilt.

__Others feel humiliated, defensive, resentful and hurt around you.

__Others view you in the exchange as angry, vengeful, distrustful and fearful.

__The outcome is usually that your goal is achieved at the expense of others. Your rights are upheld but others are violated.

__Your underlying belief system is that you have to put others down to protect yourself.

Passive Communication
__You allow others to choose and make decisions for you.

__You are emotionally dishonest.

__You are indirect and self denying.

__You are inhibited.

__If you get your own way, it is by chance.

__You feel anxious, ignored, helpless, manipulated, angry at yourself and/or others.

__Others feel guilty or superior and frustrated with you.

__Others view you in the exchange as a pushover and that you don’t know what you want or how you stand on an issue.

__The outcome is that others achieve their goals at your expense. Your rights are violated.

__Your underlying belief is that you should never make someone uncomfortable or displeased except yourself.

Passive-Aggressive Communication
__You manipulate others to choose your way.

__You appear honest but underlying comments confuse.

__You tend towards indirectness with the air of being direct.

__You are self-enhancing but not straight forward about it.

__In win-lose situations you will make the opponent look bad or manipulate it so you win.

__If you don’t get your way you’ll make snide comments or pout and be the victim.

__You feel confused, unclear on how to feel, you’re angry but not sure why. Later you possibly feel guilty.

__Others feel confused, frustrated, not sure who you are or what you stand for or what to expect next.

__Others view you in the exchange as someone they need to protect themselves from and fear being manipulated and controlled.

__The outcome is that the goal is avoided or ignored as it cause such confusion or the outcome is the same as with an aggressive or passive style.

__Your underlying belief is that you need to fight to be heard and respected. If that means you need to manipulate, be passive or aggressive, so be it.

Assertive Communication
__You choose and make decisions for you.

__You are sensitive and caring with your honesty.

__You are direct.

__You are self-respecting, self expressive and straight forward.

__You convert win-lose situations to win-win ones.

__You are willing to compromise and negotiate.

__You feel confident, self-respecting, goal-oriented, valued. Later you may feel a sense of accomplishment.

__Others feel valued and respected.

__Others view you with respect, trust and understand where you stand.

__The outcome is determined by above-board negotiation. Your rights and others are respected.

__Your underlying belief is that you have a responsibility to protect your own rights. You respect others but not necessarily their behaviour. [4]

July-2005 [18]
c) How can you build an effective network in your professional life?
~Meet people. Meet more people. Call, send e-mails, notes and cards. But the best way is, almost always,?to call in person.
~Circulate when you meet a group at an official meet or seminar. Don't stick to the one or two people you know. Introduce yourself to as many new people as possible.
~Appear likeable and approachable. Be positive not brash,?friendly not overtly flattering. Speak about yourself and your work without bragging. Listen to what other people have to say.
~Follow up on prospective contacts without hounding them. Make a call, fix up an appointment and proceed.
~Call?your contacts at regular intervals. It can be once a week, once a month or once in three months. But a friendly follow-up is a must to keep your network alive. [6]
b) What are the aspects that determine a good conversation? [6]
b) What are the different styles of communication? Does using anyone style in all communication situations affect the effectiveness of the message? Explain. [6]

January-2006 [12]
b) State whether you agree or disagree with the following statements:
i) Most of the oral communication in an organisation is informal.
ii) In an organization, oral communication as a means of formal communication is more effective than written communication.
iii) Rules of communications are same whether we communication good news or bad news.
iv) Nonverbal communication is also a part of verbal communication. [4]
e) Highlight the importance of interpersonal communication. [4]
c) Write short notes on any three of the following:
i) Communication Styles [4]

July-2006 [14]
c) “Communication with customers/clients should avoid words with negative and harsh connotations; user meaningful and softer words instead.” In the light of this statement, revise the following sentences with negative connotations to those with positive ones: (Attempt any four)
i) To avoid the loss of your credit rating and goodwill in the market, remit payment within 10 days. [2]
ii) We never make refunds on returned goods that are spoiled. [2]
iii) Because we are out of the chemicals you ordered, we would not be able to ship your order for the next 10 days. [2]
iv) You have failed to specify the exact colour of the paint you ordered. Therefore, we cannot supply the same. [2]
v) You should have realized that during summers at Delhi when temperature rises to 45O C, our refrigerators do not function properly and hence, our guarantee does not stand in that case. [2]
c) Write short notes on any three of the following:
v) Informal Communication [4]

January-2007 [16]
e) What are the interpersonal networks in a business setting? [4]
a) What are the features of interpersonal communication? [6]
b) Write a brief note on communication styles. [6]

July-2007 [9]
a) Discuss communication climates that one may find in organisation. [9]

6. Communication in Groups and Teams

January-2004 [0]

July-2004 [35]
a) Describe the elements of successful group communication. Illustrate your answer by examples. [9]
c) Distinguish between any three of the following:
ii) Teleconferencing and Videoconferencing [2]
a) Assume that you have been made a team leader to accomplish a task in your company. Suggest what kind of communication skills you need as a team leader. [8]
b) “The responsibility for the success of communication always lies with the leader of the group”. Discuss it. [8]
b) Write short notes on any three of the following:
i) Managing Meeting Mania [4]
iii) Group Decision Making Process [4]

January-2005 [18]
a) Discuss the various elements that constitute team dynamics. [8]
b) Highlights the tools necessary for effective problem solving. [5]
c) Discuss the factors that make a team presentation successful. [5]

July-2005 [0]

January-2006 [13]
d) Explain the utility of teleconferencing and videoconferencing. As a business tool, which may be considered as more effective. [4]
a) 'A good leader is responsible for ensuring an effective communication within a group.' In the light of this statement, discuss how a leader can ensure an effective system of communication among the group members. [9]

July-2006 [6]
c) Explain the role of leader in helping a team to produce effective communications and messages. [6]

January-2007 [10]
f) What is the significance of communication in groups and teams? [4]
c) Discuss briefly the tools for effective problem solving. [6]

July-2007 [15]
b) What problem is likely to be associated with group communication? [9]
b) Assume that you have earned a position of a leader in your team. State any three measures you would like to take so as to convert your team into well performing team. [6]

7. Resumes and Interviews

January-2004 [40]
1. Explain the following:
f) Performance appraisal interview.

• Planning an interview
- tell and sell
- tell and listen
- problem solving
• Conducting an interview as planned
• Applying good questioning techniques
• Listen intelligently and without prejudice while someone less senior does most of the talking
• Communicating effectively verbally and non-verbally [4]
a) Discuss various types of interviews. [8]
b) “The basic interview organization comprises of the opening phase, the question response phase and the closing phase”. Explain. [8]
c) What, according to you, are the most frequently asked questions in an interview? How would you respond to these? [2]
a) Prepare a cover letter, in fully block format, in response to the following advertisement: Wanted an Assistant Engineer, five years contract, salary package of Rs. 2,00,000/- per annum. Preference will be given to recent graduates in Engineering with effective communication skills. Apply within 15 days to P.B. No. 12345, TOI, N.Delhi. [8]
b) Also prepare a chronological resume you would like to enclose with the cover letter prepared above. Invent necessary details. [10]

July-2004 [10]
1. Answer the following in brief:
a) iv) Assume that you are going to interview a number of candidates for the post of Manager (Human Resources). Write two questions you would like to ask from them in determining their capabilities needed for the post. [2]
b) State with reasons whether you agree or disagree with the following statements:
iii) At an interview, an applicant should communicate to the extent he/she has been asked. [2]
d) Define any two of the following:
ii) Covering Letter [1]
iii) Informational Interview [1]
b) Write short notes on any three of the following:
ii) Essential features of good resume
Each resume contains required elements. Most of your time should be spent completing these parts. Browse the sections below to learn more.
A career objective can focus you and help you write a tight resume. Each statement in your resume should reflect your objective.
Write a summary statement to show why you are the ideal candidate for your desired job. The summary statement is a place to highlight your past accomplishments. Emphasize the professional characteristics that make you stand out.
Your contact information tells the employer who you are and how to contact you for additional information. This is essential in setting up an interview, via phone, email or in person.
Your education background shows your academic achievements and fields of study.
Include information on any licenses you may hold that fulfill state legal requirements.
List your certifications to indicate your specialized expertise in a particular field.
Your work experience tells the employer where you have worked and what you have done.
Your skills list shows what abilities you have related to your desired job. [4]

January-2005 [12]
a) What are the essential steps required for employment interviews? [6]
b) What is the structure of a resume? Give an example. [6]

July-2005 [18]
a) How does skillful questioning enhance both the quantity and quality of information gathered? Give various types questioning techniques, which an interviewer can ask? Which one is most informative among these techniques? [6]
a) What is interviewing? Describe the various types of interviews. [6]
7. Write short notes on any three of the following:
a) Curriculum Vitae. [6]

January-2006 [16]
b) State any five points which one should always remember to make one's resume. [5]
c) What are the difference between curriculum vitae (CV) and a resume? [3]
a) One of the responsibilities of an interviewer is to put the interviewee at ease. Assume that you are an interviewer. Suggest any two ways through you will put the interviewee at ease. [4]
c) Write short notes on any three of the following:
ii) Performance Appraisal Interview [4]

July-2006 [10]
b) Explain the necessity of sending a covering letter with one’s resume for a particular job. [4]
c) Discuss any two characteristics of an effective curriculum vitae (CV). [2]
a) What is interviewing? [4]

January-2007 [18]
a) Write a resume for the job of marketing executive highlighting your academic qualifications as well as work experience with two well-known companies. [6]
b) Write a cover letter in the form of a request for work by using a company executive’s name to gain attention. [6]
c) What are the things that you must keep in mind while planning for an employment interview? [6]

July-2007 [14]
b) Every applicant for a job wants to make an effective resume and for that purpose, he/she should use a language that will bring out clearly and effectively the abilities, skills and achievements. Keeping this in mind, choose the sentence from each of the following pairs that highlights the applicant’s achievements and is well expressed:
i) A) I was responsible for the ordering and sales of all hardware products.
B) I achieved a 20% increase in hardware sales during my management of our sales department.
ii) A) I can competently operate word processing, database, spreadsheet applications and statistical packages.
B) I am competent in use of range of computer packages.
iii) A) I am responsible for incoming and outgoing mails.
B) I am responsible for handling upto 800 articles of mail daily including cataloguing and distribution to 18 sections.
iv) A) Gained Valuable experience in processing learning materials and working as team member while working to support myself during university vacations.
B) I have no experience except for a part-time position as a clerical assistant during university vacations.
v) A) I was asked and responsible for the development of a new system for staff training.
B) I developed a new system for staff training which was highly appreciated. [10]
b) Write short notes on any three of the following:
v) Covering Letter [4]

8. Making Presentations I

January-2004 [5]
c) “Skillful presentations demand a skillful use of one’s voice”. Explain. [5]

July-2004 [10]
a) Suppose you have been asked to make a suitable presentation for the next Board’s Meeting regarding the company’s performance for the last financial year. Suggest how will plan for it and what considerations you will keep in your mind to make your presentation an effective one. [10]

January-2005 [9]
b) What preparations are made for making a presentation? [4]
b) What are the factors involved in oral presentations? [5]

July-2005 [0]

January-2006 [10]
a) You know that 'an effective representation before the management improves the chances of promotion in an organization'. Therefore, you are very particular about ensuring effective representation. Suppose that you have to make a presentation to the management next week regarding the activities of your department, suggest how you will plan about it and what steps you would like to follow in order to make your presentation very effective. [10]

July-2006 [12]
a) It is a well-accepted fact that ‘an effective representation about company’s performance before the shareholders in the annual general meeting improves the image of the company in capital market.’ Therefore, you are very particular, as Finance Director, about your representation related to the company’s performance of the year 2004-05 to the shareholders in the annual general meeting scheduled for next month at Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi. Suggest how you will organise the meeting and what steps you would like to follow in order to make your presentation very effective. [12]

January-2007 [10]
g) What are the features that need to be taken into account in order to make a successful presentation? [4]
a) In your opinion, what is the best format for making a presentation. [6]

July-2007 [9]
a) ‘Understanding well the audience is a key for successful presentation.’ Critically examine the statement and mention other important factors a presenter has to keep in mind while preparing a presentation. [9]

9. Making Presentations II
July-2004 [1]
1. Answer the following in brief:
d) Define any two of the following:
i) Brainstorming [1]
July-2006 [2]
b) Name any two situations/cases where you would like to use brainstorming as an effective methods of collecting necessary information. [2]

January-2007 [6]
b) Discuss briefly the significance of brainstorming. [6]

July-2007 [4]
b) Write short notes on any three of the following:
i) Brainstorming [4]

10. Managing Techno-Life

January-2004 [4]
1. Explain the following:
a) The concept of ‘virtual office’. [4]

July-2004 [12]
1. Answer the following in brief:
b) State with reasons whether you agree or disagree with the following statements:
v) When a major change is due to take place within an organization, the grapevine will communicate this information quickly and accurately. [2]
b) Explain, how the emergence of information technology has changed the ways by which people communicate in organizations. [10]

January-2005 [14]
e) Highlight the changing role of communication in the workplace. [4]
f) What is the significance of ON-Line Help Systems? [4]
c) What are the features of communication technology in your workplace? [6]

July-2005 [12]
c) List out the various personal qualities that are needed to an official to counsel in the workplace. [6]
• Understand that the achievements of one’s goals in life are related to a positive attitude toward work and learning.
• Learn how to use a career planning process by preparing an individual education/career plan for middle school and anticipate changes due to personal maturation and societal needs.
• Develop an awareness of the level of competency in academic areas needed to achieve career goals.
• Understand how interests, work values achievements, and abilities impact upon the career choice.
• Learn how non-traditional occupations offer expanded career opportunities. Understand what employers expect of applicants and employees.
• Learn about leisure and recreational activities that best fit personal needs and interests and contribute to personal satisfaction.
• Understand the personal qualities, e.g., dependability, punctuality, getting along with others, which are needed to secure and keep a job.
• Know about training opportunities in the community which will enhance employment potential.
• Develop knowledge of the relationship between school subjects and future educational and occupational choices without regard for prejudice, bias or stereotyping.
• Be aware of alternate educational and vocational choices and the corresponding preparation for them.
• Understand how geography affects career opportunities.
• Understand the challenges, adjustments and advantages of non-traditional occupations.
• Be aware of employment trends as they relate to training programs and employment opportunities in the local community.
• Be aware of the factors which impede performance and productivity in the workplace.

7. Write short notes on any three of the following:
d) SWOT Analysis. [6]

January-2006 [13]
g) Explain the components of virtual office and give two examples for the same. [4]
What is a Virtual Office?
A virtual office is a place where you and I can conduct business on-line worldwide over the internet. A virtual office takes advantage of communication technologies, such as chat rooms, discussion boards, video conferencing, fax on demand, and voice on demand. The purpose of the Virtual Office is to disseminate information electronically regardless of distance.
Why use a Virtual Office?
Well there are many reasons for using a Virtual Office, such as:
- Reduces paper-flow since information is exchanged electronically
- Centralizes knowledge so everyone can access it worldwide
- Makes it easy to share and distribute information and ideas
- Always open, the Virtual Office never closes, you can access anytime
- Eliminates distance, reducing the costs of information exchange
- Improves the working relationship between people between different cultures and backgrounds
How do I get started?
If you are new to virtual services, don't worry - my virtual office is very simple to use. All you have to do is navigate using the Quick Menu in the upper right corner of this web page. Several help pages are included to help answer your questions.
Self Service
One of the best features of a virtual office is self-service; i.e. you simply do it yourself. For example, you can access information from the Discussion Board or enter the Chat Room anytime. Additionally, this website is designed to be a "resource" for people interested in learning business finance. For example, you can take a Short Course from the Training Center or download a spreadsheet from Free Excel Spreadsheets. Therefore, you should find it easy to access all types of resources on this website.
Basic Components
This virtual office pulls together several services and tools. Here are some of the basic components behind this virtual office:
- ESA: Electronic Secretary Assistant is a Toll Free Service that provides Voice on Demand files that anyone can play anytime anywhere. A few of these files are listed as audio files on the Service Arrangements page.
- Volcano Chat: JAVA Applet program for providing a simple text chat room.
- Discus is the freeware program for providing the Discussion Board.
- Web Conferencing: Given a high speed internet connection, we can conduct a live conference over the internet, thanks to a desktop program called NetMeeting. However, thanks to Application Service Providers, there is now a much easier and faster way to conference. As a result, NetMeeting is slowly being replaced by on-line service providers such as WebEx, Genesys, and Microsoft's Live Meeting. Therefore, the future of web conferencing is clearly with services such as WebEx as opposed to using NetMeeting.
When you combine all of these components (Toll Free Services, Chat Room, Discussion Board, and Web Conferencing) together into a single website, you have the makings of a Virtual Office!

b) 'The emergence of information technology has revolutionized the ways by which people communicate in organizations and one of the ways is - paperless communication.' Discuss and give examples how the emergence of information technology has made paperless communication more prevalent and cost-effective mode of communication in organizations. [9]

July-2006 [12]
b) ‘Emergence of newer technologies in Information Technology (IT) has revolutionized the communication systems in an organization.’ Discuss and contrast characteristics of the communication systems in a traditional organisation with no IT support and a modern organisation equipped with latest technologies in IT. [12]

January-2007 [6]
c) Highlight the role of technology in business communication. [6]

July-2007 [13]
b) ‘Information Technology has totally changed the ways people communicate with each other in an organization.’ In the light of the statement, you are required to mention in what ways the introduction of IT in organizations has changed the channels of communication among the employees. [9]
b) Write short notes on any three of the following:
ii) Role of technology in communication [4]
The Importance of Technical Communication
The importance of good communication when using consultants cannot be overstated. When study findings, technology assessments, and software designs are supported with clear documentation, the benefits can accrue to organizations for many years. Without clear documentation, it is possible for knowledge to leave the company when the job is done. This is not a risk with Lone EagleTM Systems, where the lasting quality of finished projects is due in part to the way in which results are communicated to clients:

Performance characterization and improvement projects result in detailed analyses - presented in text and graphics - illustrating the important findings and improvements that were achieved.

Software development projects result in clear, concise on-line user documentation, design documents and - of course - well-commented source code.

System designs and architectures are developed through written documents that are incrementally improved through the design process. In some of Lone Eagle Systems' most recent work, automatically-generated Java code documentation and graphical architecture diagrams are combined in a unique way - resulting in easily-accessible on-line design documents.